APA (American Psychological Association) style is widely used by students, researchers, and professionals in the academic writing. It provides a standard way of formatting and referencing sources in academic writing.
The main components of APA style are:
An in-text citation for every source quoted or paraphrased in your paper. It includes the author’s last name, the year of publication, and sometimes a page number or a locator.
A reference list at the end of your paper that contains the full details of all the sources you cited. It is arranged alphabetically by the author’s last name and follows a specific format for each type of source.
An in-text citation appears in parentheses within the text of your paper. It allows the reader to quickly identify the source and locate it in the reference list.
The basic format of an in-text citation is:
(Author last name, Year)
If you quote directly from a source, you also need to include the page number or other locator after a comma:
(Author, Year, p. Page number)
(Shuai, 2022, p. 19)
If you cite a source with multiple authors, you need to follow these rules:
For more details and examples on how to cite different types of sources in-text, see an external source at owl.purdue.edu .
A reference list appears on a separate page at the end of your paper. It provides the full details of all the sources you cited in your paper. Each entry follows a specific format depending on the type of source.
The basic format of a reference list entry is:
Author’s last name, A. A., & Author’s last name, B. B. (Year). Title of the work. Source information. DOI or URL
Write the authors’ last names first, followed by their initials. For example, “Smith, J. M.” for Jane Marie Smith or “Smith, J.” if you don’t know the middle name.
Chen, L., & Yi, P. (2021). Frameworks of Intercultural Language Teaching: A Review. IRA International Journal of Education and Multidisciplinary Studies, 17(3), 150–156. https://doi.org/10.21013/jems.v17.n3.p5
The format may vary depending on the type of source, such as:
For more details and examples on how to cite different types of sources in your reference list, see an external source at owl.purdue.edu .
Here is an example of what your reference list might look like:
Citing a journal article
Shuai, B. (2022). Influencing Factors and Improvement Strategies for Rural Teachers’ Subjective Well-being: A Contemporary Analysis. IRA International Journal of Education and Multidisciplinary Studies, 18(1), 17–24. https://doi.org/10.21013/jems.v18.n1.p3
Citing an authored book
Mari, C. (2021). A Business History of the Bicycle Industry. Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-50563-9
Citing an edited book
David, G., & Majewski, T. (Eds.). (2009). International Handbook of Historical Archaeology. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-72071-5
Citing a chapter in an edited book
Courtney, P. (2009). The Current State and Future Prospects of Theory in European Post-Medieval Archaeology. In: Gaimster, D., Majewski, T. (eds) International Handbook of Historical Archaeology. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-72071-5_10
Citing a web resource
O’Mary, L. (2020). Hairy Moles May Contain the Cure for Baldness: Study. Retrieved June 22, 2023, from https://www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/hair-loss/news/20230622/hairy-moles-may-contain-cure-baldness-study