IRA International Journal of
The journal regularly reviews the works on management, developmental studies, economics, businesses, entrepreneurship, developmental psychology, cultural studies besides other sub-disciplines of social sciences.
ISSN 2455-2267 | DOI 10.21013/jmss
OCLC No. 950042020 | ZDB No. 2855909-5
Publication Frequency: Quarterly
This research paper focused on the provision of students’ accommodation in the Nigerian universities through public-private partnership, drawing lessons from the Universiti Utara Malaysia. Hostel accommodation is a form of providing the students with an enabling environment where they can stay as a place of residence, will feel secured and comfortable to learn in a peaceful environment. The objective of this paper is to learn from the Malaysian environment, with a focus on the Universiti Utara Malaysia. The research work made use of the qualitative method through the conduct of interviews and other sources such as journals and online publications. Findings from the research reveal that the Universiti Utara Malaysia provides hostel accommodation which is more than enough to serve the university’s capacity of 30,000 students’ population on campus through the public-private partnership scheme. The research also found that multinational companies like PETRONAS Oil Company, Proton automobile company, Malaysia Airline, and Maybank among other companies built hostel accommodation for the students. The Malaysian Government on the other hand through a public-private partnership provided infrastructural facilities such as constant electricity and water supply for the purpose of a conducive environment for learning. The work, therefore, recommends that the Nigerian Government can partner with the Malaysian Government through resolving the big problem of electricity supply in the country and on the Universities as well. The paper also recommends that the Nigerian Government should regulate the private companies in order to engage them in partnership development through the provision of adequate hostel accommodations for the students. This would enable peace and security sustainability on the campuses of the Nigerian universities with lessons from the Universiti Utara Malaysia.
Many internal and external factors influence consumer decision-making when it comes to the purchase and use of various products and services. The attributes of the product itself, the brand, and the container in which it is encased is the most important and critical external variables. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey involving hotels, beauty parlours, electronics dealers, boutiques as well as entertainment outlets. The researcher targeted 305 business premises operating in 30 shopping malls from which a sample of 62 premises and 310 customers were sampled using stratification, Simple Random Sampling (SRS) and convenient sampling. The data was collected through the use of questionnaires. Descriptive statistics was employed and results were presented in tables and charts with the help of Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) for analysis purposes. The influence of consumer purchasing power on the preference of shopping malls was tested using regression, correlation and Chi-square methods at 5% levels of effect. From the study findings, the researcher establish that purchasing power, personal preference has been found to play an important role in influencing consumer’s preferences and bias towards shopping malls. An overwhelming number of the consumers recognized the importance of group influence on their choice of the shopping mall. This helped the researcher draw a conclusion and formulate recommendations informing policies and marketing strategies that are essential to marketers in the shopping malls and other related business facilities in line with consumer purchasing power.
This study described the Analysis of Competitive Strategies and Challenges of Tourism Industry in the Midst of Covid-19 Pandemic and provide recommendations. Specifically, it looked into the challenges and recommendations of the owners of operational tourist spots in the selected municipalities in Nueva Ecija which are Bongabon and Laur and analyzed how comparative strategies contribute to the challenges and recommendations of the owners of operational tourist spots. This study used the descriptive-evaluative method and total enumeration for its sampling procedure. As to its findings, to improve the tourism operation of the respondents amidst the Covid-19 pandemic, the result shows that the respondents “always” used competitive strategies in their businesses. Based on the result, the focus-strategy which is one of the elements of comparative strategies was ranked number one, it means that the owners of operational tourism spots wanted to take all the challenges they were encountered amidst pandemic, it is not a barrier for them to stop their businesses that is why they want to know in a market due to their pleasing tourist spots compared to its competitors and they have recommendations on how to innovate and improve their operational tourist spots.
Rural Revitalization cannot be carried out simply through industrialization that has been done by the traditional development. It needs the simultaneous development of primary, secondary and tertiary industries because the traditional development mode of rural tourism, which allows farmers to move away from villages and occupy good natural resources, has not been accepted. In the process of rural revitalization development, the village collective should play a major role in formulating standardized processes and methods, focusing on optimizing resources, excavating the unique culture of the countryside, and encouraging the villagers to participate actively. As an important link between villagers, tourists and the natural environment, rural leisure can promote villagers’ return, retain tourists, and finally promote rural revitalization with the concept of ecological civilization, so as to realize the sustainable development of rural areas.